Manual The Discourse Trap and the US Military: From the War on Terror to the Surge

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The question is what does Pakistan's army want to achieve …? They want to gain influence in the region" [] About the presence of foreign troops in Afghanistan he stated: "[T]hey fight for the U. By May the Afghan Army had accomplished this interim goal and was on track to reach its ultimate number of , by In , the Afghan National Army had limited fighting capacity.

In one new unit in Baghlan Province , soldiers had been found cowering in ditches rather than fighting. Michael Bell, who was one of a team of U. I couldn't get them to shoot their weapons. The Afghan Army was plagued by inefficiency and endemic corruption. Afghan soldiers often snipped the command wires of IEDs instead of marking them and waiting for U.

This allowed insurgents to return and reconnect them. Desertion was a significant problem. One in every four combat soldiers quit the Afghan Army during the month period ending in September , according to data from the U. Within the ANSF there are also strong external loyalties to factions who themselves compete for influence and access to resources.

All this means that the ANSF may not work as they officially should. Rather it appears that the political economy of the ANSF prevents them from working like modern organisations — the very prerequisite' of the Resolute Support Mission. There is evidence that Afghan officers and officials, especially in the higher echelons, appropriate large parts of the vast resource flows which are directed by international donors into the ANA.

Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction has reported that roughly half of Afghan soldiers brought to the United States for training go absent without leave which may inhibit the operational readiness of their units back in Afghanistan, negatively impact the morale of other trainees and home units and pose security risks to the United States. The Afghan National Police provides support to the Afghan army. Police officers in Afghanistan are also largely illiterate. Approximately 17 percent of them tested positive for illegal drugs in They were widely accused of demanding bribes.


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The armed opposition or anti-government elements — some Western news media tend to address them all simply as "Taliban" [] — have from into shifted their tactics from frontal attacks on pro-government forces to guerrilla type activities, including suicide, car and road side bombs IEDs , and targeted assassinations, said a UNAMA report in July In —, according to the Christian Science Monitor , 16 improvised explosive devices IEDs were planted in girls' schools in Afghanistan, but there's no certainty who did that.

In , Colonel Richard Kemp , formerly Commander of British forces in Afghanistan and current intelligence coordinator for the British government — thus part of the anti-Taliban coalition ISAF , made these comments about the Taliban tactics and strategy as he perceived them:.

Like Hamas in Gaza , the Taliban in southern Afghanistan are masters at shielding themselves behind the civilian population and then melting in among them for protection. Women and children are trained and equipped to fight, collect intelligence, and ferry arms and ammunition between battles. Female suicide bombers are increasingly common. The use of women to shield gunmen as they engage NATO forces is now so normal it is deemed barely worthy of comment. Schools and houses are routinely booby-trapped. Snipers shelter in houses deliberately filled with women and children.

Beginning in , insurgent forces in Afghanistan began using a tactic of insider attacks on ISAF and Afghan military forces. In the attacks, Taliban personnel or sympathizers belonging to, or pretending to belong to, the Afghan military or police forces attack ISAF personnel, often within the security of ISAF military bases and Afghan government facilities. In , for example, 21 insider attacks killed 35 coalition personnel.

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Forty-six insider attacks killed 63 and wounded 85 coalition troops, mostly American, in the first 11 months of However, on 5 August , a gunman in an Afghan military uniform opened fire on a number of international military personnel, killing a U. In November , the CNN reported widespread relief amongst Kabul's residents after the Taliban fled the city, with young men shaving off their beards and women taking off their burqas.

A one of its most favorable ratings in the world. Polls of Afghans displayed strong opposition to the Taliban and significant support of the U. However, the idea of permanent U. In a June Gallup survey, about half of Afghan respondents felt that additional U. But opinions varied widely; residents in the troubled South were mostly mixed or uncertain, while those in the West largely disagreed that more U. In December , many Afghan tribal heads and local leaders from the south and east called for U.

In late January , Afghan protesters took to the streets for three straight days and blocked traffic on a highway that links Kabul and Kandahar. Ghazni residents insisted that the dead were civilians. Only Israel and Kenya citizens were in favor of the war. The authors of the survey mentioned a "global unease with major world powers" and in America that "Afghan War not worth it".

Majorities in 7 out of 12 NATO member countries wanted troops withdrawn as soon as possible. In there was a strong opposition to war in Afghanistan in 21 of 24 countries surveyed. Only in the U. Authors of articles on the issue mentioned that "Australians lose faith in Afghan War effort" and "cruel human toll of fight to win Afghan peace".

The global survey reported that majorities or pluralities in 18 out of 25 countries wanted NATO to remove their troops from Afghanistan as soon as possible. In a nation June survey of global public opinion, the Pew Global Attitudes Project found international opposition to the war. Out of the 47 countries surveyed, 4 had a majority that favored keeping foreign troops: the U.

In 41, pluralities wanted NATO troops out as soon as possible.

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Majorities in 7 out of 12 NATO member countries said troops should be withdrawn as soon as possible. A nation Pew Global Attitudes survey in June similarly found that majorities or pluralities in 21 of 24 countries want the U. Only in three out of the 24 countries—the U. Following that June global survey, however, public opinion in Australia and Britain diverged from that in the U.

A majority of Australians and Britons now want their troops home. In the U. Almost half of Americans, 49 percent, believed that the U. That figure was an increase from 30 percent who said that in December The war has been the subject of large protests around the world starting with the large-scale demonstrations in the days leading up to the invasion and every year since.

Online The Discourse Trap And The Us Military: From The War On Terror To The Surge

Many protesters consider the bombing and invasion of Afghanistan to be unjustified aggression. Multiple accounts document human rights violations in Afghanistan. Amnesty International said that up to civilians were killed in by bombs, mostly on roads or carried by suicide attackers belonging to the Taliban. NATO has alleged that the Taliban have used civilians as human shields. A spokesman for the ISAF commander said: "This was a deliberate plan by the Taliban to create a civilian casualty crisis. These were not human shields; these were human sacrifices.

We have intelligence that points to this.

Online The Discourse Trap And The Us Military: From The War On Terror To The Surge

State Department, the Taliban committed human rights violations against women in Afghanistan. White phosphorus has been condemned by human rights organizations as cruel and inhumane because it causes severe burns. White phosphorus burns on the bodies of civilians wounded in clashes near Bagram were confirmed. Human rights abuses against Afghan refugees and asylum seekers have been documented. Afghan refugees in Iran , for example, were not allowed attend public schools, [] [] "faced with restrictions on property ownership, freedom of movement, and access to government services For the price of citizenship for their family members, Afghan children as young as 14 were recruited to fight in Iraq and Syria for a six-month tour.

Afghan refugees were regularly denied visa to travel between countries to visit their family members, faced long delays usually a few years [] in processing of their visa applications to visit family members for purposes such as weddings, gravely ill family member, burial ceremonies, and university graduation ceremonies; potentially violating rights including free movement , right to family life and the right to an effective remedy.

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Many Afghan refugees were not permitted to visit their family members for a decade or two. Studies have shown abnormally high mental health issues and suicide rates among Afghan refugees and their children living in the west. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Marines prepare to board buses shortly after arriving in southern Afghanistan; Taliban fighters in a cave hideout; U.

For a map of the current military situation in Afghanistan, see here. Continued list [a]. Timeline Battles and operations. Helmand Province campaign.